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Researchers found that voters who consumed the most media had generally already decided for which candidate to vote, while undecided voters generally turned to family and community members to help them decide. Gledhill – ‘Genres can be seen as a kind of shorthand, increasing the efficiency of communication’. Young and Rubicam – Cross Culturalization model is used by advertising agency to categorize its audiences – uses the MARS and MRS EARS techniques. 'Normal' adult and youth behaviour, contrasted with deviant youth behaviour, allows the state to have more control. McLuhan spoke of a media-inspired “global village” at a time when Cold War paranoia was at its peak and the Vietnam War was a hotly debated subject. The main principles of this theory can be summed as follows: Denis McQuail states that it is most difficult to formulate this theory, partly because it lacks full legitimization and incorporation into media institutions and partly because some of its tenets are already to be found in some of the other theories. Database Logic: “The Internet, which can be thought of as one huge distributed media database, also crystallized the basic condition of the new information society: overabundance of information of all kinds… The emergence of new media coincides with the second stage of a media society, now concerned as much with accessing and re-using existing media as with creating new one”. Hartley, John - The idea that there is a 360 degree consumption/saturation of the media for modern audiences. Schramm explains that mass communication in the Soviet media theory is an instrument of the state. By using symbolic interactionist theory, researchers can look at the ways media affects a society’s shared symbols and, in turn, the influence of those symbols on the individual (Jansson-Boyd, 2010). For example, prior to and during World War II, many Germans opposed Adolf Hitler and his policies; however, they kept their opposition silent out of fear of isolation and stigma.

  • Effects theory (Hypodermic Syringe, Innoculation) – what the media does to audiences
3. Steve Neale - Identified genres by their use of audience expectations and common conventions. ... G Burton (2000) said genres must contain “The familiar and the unexpected”; something must add to the genre pool. youth culture use certain words that are understood by that culture; a British film may well show schools, pubs and landmarks that British audiences recognize). Queer Theory explores and challenges the way in which heterosexuality is constructed as normal and homosexuality as deviant. Despite—or perhaps because of—these controversies, McLuhan became a pop culture icon, mentioned frequently in the television sketch-comedy program Laugh-In and appearing as himself in Woody Allen’s film Annie Hall. It envisages media to be under the control of the working class. A fictional world that contains verisimilitude especially governed by spatial and temporal coherence. Turow - His basic premise is that audience segmentation, and especially the pinpoint targeting that is theoretically possible with new media technology, reinforces suspicion, alienation, and lack of empathy among people of different groups because they have lost the shared consumer experience that the old mass media audience system provided. Saussure - Concept of semiotics and language (linguistics) 1974 - the extended connotations of within a cultural system. E.g. These include relaxation, social interaction, entertainment, arousal, escape, and a host of interpersonal and social needs. For example, you may enjoy watching a show like Dancing With the Stars while simultaneously tweeting about it on Twitter with your friends. In turn, media companies have sought to produce accurate representations of their audiences in an attempt to discover the qualifications for the most consumable media products (Branston and Stafford 268-270). This is when someone puts their intent out onto the internet and then gets free support/information/ideas/labour from other people on the internet. The pervasiveness of these formats means that our culture uses the style and content of these shows as ways to interpret reality. At A2 (and AS) you can't afford to answer an exam with generalisations, you need some substance to back you up, and if it's not with hard facts and case studies, then you'll need your 'guide to theorists' to help you. The distribution and funding possibilities of the internet are better than the traditional models. The Proairetic Code also builds tension as it sets the reader guessing what will happen next. There is a succinct relationship between music and visuals. Richard Dyer – in 1973 argued that ‘genres are pleasurable because they offer escapist fantasies into fictional worlds that remove the boredom of reality’. Then, researchers must consider the given media consumer’s cultural background of individuals to correctly determine other factors that are involved in his or her perception of reality. David Bordwell notes, 'any theme may appear in any genre' (Bordwell 1989) ‘One could... argue that no set of necessary and sufficient conditions can mark off genres from other sorts of groupings in ways that all experts or ordinary film-goers would find acceptable' Essentially, genre is hard to classify as pure.

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